A guide comparing Associated Press style and Chicago style for editors, writers, teachers, students, word nerds, and anyone else who gives a dollar sign, ampersand, exclamation point, and pound sign about style.

Numbers: Spell Out or Use Numerals? (Number Style 101)

Numbers take up their own planet in the style universe, so let's explore it one mountain at a time. This post covers the basic rules and the basic exceptions. (They're like siblings, I tell ya.) After we get the fundamentals out of the way, we can move on to fun subcategories, such as money and measurements!

Here's a little number warm-up to get your brains up and running.
Cardinal numbers: one, 7, forty-one, one hundred nine, 852, three thousand sixty-one
Ordinal numbers: 1st, seventh, 41st, 109th, eight hundred fifty-second, 3,061st
Arabic numerals: 1, 7, 41, 109, 852, 3,061
Roman numerals: I, VII, XLI, CIX, DCCCLII, MMMLXI
The best way to commit these distinctions to your long-term memory is to type them out and make up a string of examples for each. (Trust me.)

Note: The 2010 Associated Press Stylebook prefers the ambiguous word "figure" to refer to number symbols (e.g., 1, 2, 3), choosing to broadly define "numeral" as, among other things, "[a] word or group of words" (p. 201). I'm sticking to the definition in AP's dictionary of choice, Webster's New World College Dictionary—"a figure, letter, or a group of any of these, expressing a number." The Chicago Manual of Style differentiates numerals from words as well.

Basic Number Rules (for Nontechnical Copy)

AP (p. 203):
  • Spell out whole numbers up to (and including) nine (e.g., zero, one, 10, 96, 104).
  • Spell out casual expressions: "A picture is worth a thousand words, but a really good one is worth a thousand dollars."
Chicago (9.2-4, 9.8):
  • Spell out whole numbers up to (and including) one hundred (e.g., zero, one, ten, ninety-six, 104).
  • Spell out whole numbers up to (and including) one hundred when followed by "hundred," "thousand," "hundred thousand," "million," "billion," and so on (e.g., eight hundred, 12,908, three hundred thousand, twenty-seven trillion).
  • Alternative rule: Spell out whole numbers up to (and including) nine, and use numerals for the rest. That's right, you have a choice. Control yourselves or we will make you spell out phone numbers in the 17th edition.

Numbers Beginning a Sentence

AP (p. 202): Spell out numbers that begin a sentence unless it begins with a year (e.g., "Twelve drummers," "The 10 lords a-leaping," "2011's quota for off-season holiday references has been filled.").

Chicago (9.5): Always spell out numbers that begin a sentence, or reword to avoid unwieldiness. Well, if you think that "Nineteen ninety-one" looks more awesome than "The year 1991," then go right ahead. [Awkward silence as double bind takes effect]

Note: There is no "and" when you spell out whole numbers (e.g., "one hundred one Dalmatians," not "one hundred and one Dalmatians"). It might be acceptable in speech, however, a grammatical deviation along the lines of "It's me!" and "Who are you talking to?"


AP (p. 202): Spell out ordinal numbers up to (and including) "ninth" when indicating sequence in time or location (e.g., first kiss, 11th hour) but not when indicating sequence in naming conventions (usually geographic, military, or political, e.g., 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals).

Chicago (9.6): Spell out ordinal numbers up to (and including) "hundredth" (e.g., second, sixty-first, 333rd, 1,024th).

A Word About Consistency

AP (p. 203): If you're juggling a bunch of numbers within the same sentence, stick to the rules as stated and you'll be fine. Breathe.

Chicago (9.7): If you're juggling a bunch of numbers within the same paragraph or series of paragraphs, be flexible with the number style if doing so will improve clarity and comprehension. For example, use one number style for items in one category and another style for another category: "I read four books with more than 400 pages, sixty books with more than 100 pages, and a hundred articles with less than 4 pages."

Now that the basics of number style have been laid out, I bet that you can smell the exceptions 1.1 miles away.

[A beat, then exit stage right]


  1. "one hundred and one Dalmatians" is the preferred format in Australia and Britain.

  2. Thanks for your comment, diemperdidi! Apparently, inclusion or omission of the "and" is a source of consternation for many. I'm just glad that AP and Chicago agree on this point.

  3. I'm used to APA and Chicago, and I also found AP's number terminology funny (particularly the use of "figure" as you mentioned). So would you say that AP prefers to use numerals for low numbers grouped in comparison, as CMOS does?

    I read 4 books the other day, bringing my total to 12 books so far this semester. (or should we say "four"?)

  4. I think and believe that writing numbers or numerals should be guided only by logic and reasonableness, not by all those rules. On the other hand, my teacher instructed me that figures, Arabic number or digits are used for emphasizing because they stand out within text and call attention. If you have to spell out numbers, you may also spell " April nine, two thousand twelve"; if you write digits, "you may write "2 men and 24 women" Which is which?

  5. I agree with the previous post. In the business world, the most common preference is for shorter, more visual text - hence the predominant usage of Arabic numbers and ordinals, despite the more formal rules above. Dates are greatly shortened, and often expressed as only two numbers: MM/DD.