A guide comparing Associated Press style and Chicago style for editors, writers, teachers, students, word nerds, and anyone else who gives a dollar sign, ampersand, exclamation point, and pound sign about style.

Slashes: Uses and Restrictions

Misunderstood. Abused. Ignored. No, not me. Well, maybe that too, but I'm referring to the beleaguered slash, which you may know as a diagonal, virgule, solidus, slant, stroke, oblique stroke, separatrix, shilling mark, or forward slash (the low-self-esteem retronym which seeks to distinguish the slash [/] from the backslash [\]).

With this many names and almost as many roles—providing alternatives, adding, abbreviating, separating, joining—the slash is like the understudy who also prints the flyers and strikes the set along with the stage crew. Even so, The Associated Press Stylebook chose to exclude the slash from the "Punctuation" section, acknowledging it with a thirty-word chin nod in the main section instead. (It could be worse: The en dash was completely forsaken.)

It may surprise you to learn that the most common usage of the slash, as a signifier of alternatives/options/choices, has been barred in AP style; slashes are acceptable only in certain phrases and "special situations," such as with fractions. A heavy user of slashes and other intoxicating punctuation, such as semicolons, I do admit to relying upon them to organize the contents of my brain when I'm in a hurry. And why not? They're free, and I can use the time I'm saving for more important tasks, like chewing properly.


Slashes: Differences Between AP and Chicago Style

AP: We never said that slashes are tacky or that using them is lazy, but we're cool with those inferences. Here are the acceptable uses.
  • With fractions
  • Between lines of quoted poetry
  • In Internet addresses (URLs) and pathnames
  • In descriptive phrases such as "24/7" or "9/11"
  • In the signoff (credit) in photo captions
Note: AP doesn't explain this, but in the stylebook, the slash is also used in abbreviations such as "TCP/IP" and "NAA/IPTC."

In the 14th edition (1993) of The Chicago Manual of Style, the slash was listed under "solidus" and was summed up in one paragraph. Cute, right? It didn't make the first edition, in 1906, but that was a two-hundred-page baby compared to today's thousand-page sumo wrestler.

Chicago: We love our versatile little friend. Here are some of its uses.
  • With fractions
  • Between lines of quoted poetry
  • In Internet addresses (URLs) and pathnames
  • To signify "or" or "and/or"
  • With two-year spans, e.g., "1991/92" (instead of an en dash)
  • With dates (informal), e.g., "6/1/11"
  • In abbreviations, e.g., "$7/hour" (instead of "per") and "c/o" (instead of a period)

So that's the nitty-gritty of slashes and style. Let's talk about how to render a slash in certain contexts to improve readability, which is, after all, the heart of copyediting. (Or the lungs. Some vital organ.) In my experience, non-editors tend to either compulsively add spaces around all slashes or close them all up. When in doubt, ditch the spaces and you'll be right most of the time; however, Chicago has an option for handling open compounds (two or more words separated by a space, e.g., "copy editor") that offers more flexibility and clarity—totally worth memorizing. More on that coming up.


General Rule for Using Spaces With Slashes

In most cases, there are no spaces on either side of the slash. This is especially true for unique (read: inflexible) constructions such as directory paths and filenames, where our use of the slash is driven by requirement, not style.

Brief rant: There's a rogue slash style making the rounds, usually on resumes, for some reason: no space before the slash but one after. I'm not impressed by this. It's a red flag that points to poor decision-making more than anything else; even if executed consistently, it isn't a style which showcases a copy editor's skills. Rather, it may expose her or him as a "street" editor (as in "any schmoe off the street"). Not that I don't appreciate this heads-up.


Exception: Quoted Poetry

AP: To show line breaks when quoting poetry in running text, use a slash between the lines, with a space before and after the slashes.

Chicago: Ditto. And when quoting more than one stanza in running text, insert two slashes [//] between the stanzas.

Note: Although Chicago discusses this explicitly, AP actually doesn't say anything about putting spaces around slashes for quoting poetry—only that slashes can be used to denote "the ends of a line in quoted poetry." Good enough for me!


Exception: Open Compounds

Chicago: If one or both of the terms separated by the slash consist of two or more words, a space before and after the slash may aid comprehension.

This option really appeals to me, because it helps to visually group an open compound, making it clear that words beyond the ones immediately surrounding the slash are part of the thoughts being weighed.

The 15th edition had prescribed a thin space before and after; now we've graduated to a full space, certainly a more realistic option for writers, editors, and typesetters. (Spacing slashes was not even addressed in the 14th edition.) I applaud this move towards simplicity and am looking forward to a thinner edition in CMOS' next incarnation. Well, I can dream, at least.


Sources
  • AP, 2011: "slash" and "Internet"; "Photo Captions" section
  • CMOS, 16th edition: slashes, 6.103-110; periods with abbreviations, 10.4; running in more than one stanza of poetry, 13.32

13 comments:

  1. In a novel I am copyediting, the characters sometimes quote poetry. To me, the slash looks odd in dialogue ... I'm inclined to delete it an let the punctuation and capitalization indicate the space breaks.
    What do you think?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, Laura. I'm in favor of retaining the slash when lines of poetry are run in, because it's immediately understood to be poetry. Some poetry can be spectacularly weird, with random capitalization and lines breaking willy-nilly, so I'm not sure that dispensing with slashes will make the original line breaks clear. It really depends on actual usage in the novel. I can see how, if a character quotes a single sentence from a poem, and it happens to break across two lines, use of quote marks (within quote marks) are enough, no slash. If entire stanzas are being quoted, then setting off the poem in a block quote will be better. Also, if the poetry being quoted was authored by someone else, check copyright rules governing fair use. I hope that helps!

      Delete
  2. I hate the unchecked use of spaces before and after slashes. To me, that's more of a graphic design consideration, in which adding a thin space before and after prevents the surrounding type from clumsily touching the slash, thus improving clarity. The practice of adding spaces outside of that context simply makes the person doing it look like they don't know how to properly use that particular mark.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you for the informative/entertaining explanation. I'm with Kevin and have concerns over the text getting crowded with the slash from a readability perspective, and although I am technically a writer, I apply a graphics mentality to slashes as a result. My biggest pet peeve is the lack of space before the slash and a space following the slash. I find it infuriating! I'll have to copy this blog and send it to my boss, who is a regular offender. Cheers!

    ReplyDelete
  4. The open compound exception messes with me all the time. I run into it often, and it always seems tough to be able to distinguish which words I'm trying to make options.

    "We can go to the mall and get a hamburger / hot dog."

    Obviously i'm not going to get a 'hamburger dog', but I've had other uses where it might make sense to pair the first phrase with the second word in the second phrase. In a situation like this, would it be appropriate to pull from math class, and write:

    "We can go to the mall and get a (hamburger / hot dog)." ?

    (Let's ignore the 'hotdog' spelling for now.)

    Thanks for the info!

    ReplyDelete
  5. Maybe the ambiguity of the open compound is more clear in: "We can go to the mall and get a hot dog / popsicle."

    Syntax would certainly be less ambiguous if we constructed English using the conventions of logic. Certain human languages allow less ambiguity, but they lack some richness and flexibility as a result. More to the point, your sentences won't be read if you use parentheses to set off logical units, so you need to do this through actual English grammar. If you're using "hot dog / popsicle" simply as shorthand for "hot dog, or popsicle, or both" then write that instead.

    Your parenthesis approach made me think of this (amended) Prefab Sprout lyric:

    I'm the king of rock 'n' roll completely
    Up from suede shoes to my baby blues
    (Hot dog / jumping frog / Albuquerque)

    ReplyDelete
  6. How do you break the line to accommodate slashes and open compounds?
    1.
    eat meat / fruits and vegetables /
    dairy

    2.
    eat meat / fruits and vegetables
    / dairy

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For a list, better to use commas and re-order items for clarity: eat meat, dairy, and fruits and vegetables. If you loooove slashes and the context can bear the informality of multiple slashes, try: eat meat/fruits/vegetables/dairy.

      Delete
  7. Thanks for the suggestion. The nouns I used were stand-ins for company names that can't be reorganized. I was hoping for a recommendation on whether to handle the slash like a hyphenated word at the end of a line, or perhaps at the start of the line to make it clear that the series is continuing.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Oh, got it. Line break usually comes after the slash, regardless of whether it's an open compound.

      Delete